Virtual Human Interaction Lab – Stanford University

{ Publications }

Browse Publications by Topic

Gehlbach, H., Marietta, G., King, A., Karutz, C., Bailenson, J.N. & Dede, C. (in press). Many Ways to Walk a Mile in Another’s Moccasins: Type of Social Perspective Taking and its effect on Negotiation Outcomes. Computers in Human Behavior.

Won, A.S., Lee, J.D., Bailenson, J.N., Lanier, J. (in press). Homuncular Flexibility in Virtual Reality. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication.

Kizilcec, R.F., Bailenson, J.N., & Gomez, C.J. (in press). The Instructor’s Face in Video Instruction: Evidence from Two Large-Scale Field Studies. Journal of Educational Psychology.

Bailey, J.O., Bailenson, J.N., Flora, J., Armel, K.C., Voelker, D., & Reeves, B. (in press). The impact of vivid and personal messages on reducing energy consumption related to hot water use. Environment and Behavior.

Aymerich-Franch, L., Kizilcec, R.F., & Bailenson, J.N. (2014). The Relationship between Virtual Self Similarity and Social Anxiety. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 8(944).

Ahn, S.J., Bailenson, J.N., & Park, D. (2014). Short- and long-term effects of embodied experiences in immersive virtual environments on environmental locus of control and behavior. Computers in Human Behavior, 39, 235-245.

Won, A.S., Bailenson J.N., & Janssen, J.H. (in press). Automatic Detection of Nonverbal Behavior Predicts Learning in Dyadic Interactions. IEEE Transactions on Affective Computing.

Won, A.S., Bailenson, J.N., Stathatos, S.C., Dai, W. (2014). Automatically Detected Nonverbal Behavior Predicts Creativity in Collaborating Dyads, Journal of Nonverbal Behavior, 1-20.

Fox, J., Ahn, S.J., Janssen, J., Yeykelis, L., Segovia, K., & Bailenson, J. N. (in press). Avatars versus agents: A meta-analysis quantifying the effect of agency. Human-Computer Interaction.

Aymerich-Franch, L. & Bailenson, J.N. (2014). The use of doppelgangers in virtual reality to treat public speaking anxiety: a gender comparison. Proceedings of the International Society for Presence Research Annual Conference. March, 17-19, Vienna, Austria.

Lee, J.-E.R, Nass, C.I., & Bailenson, J.N. (2014). Does the mask govern the mind? : Effects of arbitrary gender representation on quantitative task performance in avatar-represented virtual groups. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, & Social Networking, 17(4), 248-254.


Purvis, C.K., Jones, M. Bailey, J., Bailenson, J.N., Taylor, C.B. (2013). Designing virtual environments to measure behavioral correlates of state-level body satisfaction. Studies in Health Technology and Information, 191, 168–172.

Jarrold, W., Mundy, P., Gwaltney, M., Bailenson, J.N., Hatt, N., McInyre, N., Kim, K., Solomon, M., Novotny, S., Swain, L. (2013). Social Attention in a Virtual Public Speaking Task in Higher Functioning Children with Autism. Autism Research, 6(5), 393-410.

Rosenberg, R.S., Baughman, S.L., Bailenson, J.N. (2013). Virtual Superheroes: Using Superpowers in Virtual Reality to Encourage Prosocial Behavior. PLOS One., 8 (1), 1-9.

Segovia, K.Y. & Bailenson, J.N. (2013). Identity Manipulation—What Happens When Identity Presentation is Not Truthful. In Amichai-Hamburger Y. (Ed.), The Social Net: Understanding Our Online Behavior, Oxford University Press, 45-61.

Ahn, S.J., Le, A.M.T., & Bailenson, J.N. (2013). The effect of embodied experiences on self-other merging, attitude, and helping behavior. Media Psychology, 16 (1), 7-38.

Fox, J., Bailenson, J.N., & Tricase, L. (2013). The embodiment of sexualized virtual selves: The Proteus effect and experiences of self-objectification via avatars. Computers in Human Behavior., 29, 930-938.

Alonso, M.B., Keyson, D.V., Jabon, M.E., Hummels, C.C.M, Hekkert, P.P.M & Bailenson, J.N. (2013). Post-error expression of speed and force while performing a simple, monotonous task with a haptic pen. Behaviour & Information Technology, 32 (8), 778-782.


Segovia, K.Y., Bailenson, J.N. & Leonetti, C. (2012). Virtual human identification line-ups. In Wilkinson, C. & Rynn, C. (Eds.), Craniofacial Identification, Cambridge University Press, 101-114.

Fox, J., Bailenson J.N., & Ricciardi, T (2012). Physiological Responses to Virtual Selves and Virtual Others. Journal of CyberTherapy & Rehabilitation, 5 (1), 69-72.

Bailey, J., Bailenson, J.N., Won, A.S., Flora, J., & Armel, K.C (2012). Presence and memory: Immersive virtual reality effects on cued recall. Proceedings of the International Society for Presence Research Annual Conference. October 24-26, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.

Cummings, J.J., Bailenson, J.N., & Fidler, M.J. (2012). How immersive is enough? A foundation for a meta-analysis of the effect of immersive technology on measured presence. Proceedings of the International Society for Presence Research Annual Conference. October 24-26, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.

Won, A.S., Yu, L., Janssen, J.H., & Bailenson, J.N. (2012). Tracking Gestures to Detect Gender. Proceedings of the International Society for Presence Research Annual Conference. October 24 – 26, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA

Aymerich-Franch, L., Karutz, C., & Bailenson, J.N. (2012). Effects of Facial and Voice Similarity on Presence in a Public Speaking Virtual Environment. Proceedings of the International Society for Presence Research Annual Conference. October 24–26, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.

Segovia, K. Y., & Bailenson, J.N. (2012). Virtual imposters: Responses to avatars that do not look like their controllers. Social Influence.

Bailenson, J.N. (2012). Doppelgangers: A New Form of Self. The Psychologist, 25 (1), 36-39.

Ahn, S.J., Fox, J., & Bailenson, J.N. (2012). Avatars. In Bainbridge, W. S. (Ed.), Leadership in Science and Technology: A Reference Handbook. SAGE Publications.


Blascovich, J., & Bailenson, J.N. (2011). Infinite Reality - Avatars, Eternal Life, New Worlds, and the Dawn of the Virtual Revolution. New York: William Morrow.

Bailenson, J.N., & Blascovich, J. (2011). Virtual Reality and Social Networks Will Be a Powerful Combination: Avatars will make social networks seductive. IEEE Spectrum. PDF

Jabon, M.E., Bailenson J.N., Pontikakis, E.D., Takayama, L., & Nass, C. (2011). Facial Expression Analysis for Predicting Unsafe Driving Behavior. IEEE Pervasive Computing, 10 (4), 84-95.

Ahn, S.J., & Bailenson, J.N. (2011). Self-endorsing versus other-endorsing in virtual environments: The effect on brand attitude and purchase intention. Journal of Advertising, 40 (2), 93-106.

Hershfield, H.E., Goldstein, D.G., Sharpe, W.F., Fox, J., Yeykelis, L., Carstensen, L.L., & Bailenson, J.N. (2011). Increasing saving behavior through age-progressed renderings of the future self. Journal of Marketing Research, 48, S23-S37.

Yee, N., Harris, H., Jabon, M., Bailenson, J.N. (2011). The Expression of Personality in Virtual Worlds. Social Psychology and Personality Science, 2 (1), 5-12.

Jabon, M.E., Ahn, S.J., & Bailenson, J.N. (2011). Automatically Analyzing Facial-Feature Movements to Identify Human Errors. IEEE Journal of Intelligent Systems, 26 (2), 54-63.

Ahn, S.J. (2011). Embodied Experiences in Immersive Virtual Environments: Effects on Pro-Environmental Attitude and Behavior. (Doctoral dissertation). Stanford University.


Janssen, J.H., Bailenson J.N., IJsselsteijn, W.A., & Westerink, J.H.D.M. (2010). Intimate heartbeats: Opportunities for affective communication technology. IEEE Transactions on Affective Computing, 1 (2), 72-80.

Fox, J., & Bailenson, J.N. (2010). The use of doppelgängers to promote health behavior change. CyberTherapy & Rehabilitation, 3 (2), 16-17.

Leonetti, C., & Bailenson, J.N. (2010). High-Tech view: The use of immersive virtual environments in jury trials. 93 (3) Marquette Law Review, 1073.

Ahn, S.J., Bailenson, J.N., Fox. J, & Jabon, M.E. (2010). Using Automated Facial Expression Analysis for Emotion and Behavior Prediction. in Doeveling, K., von Scheve, C., & Konjin, E. A. (Eds.), Handbook of Emotions and Mass Media (349-369). London/New York: Routledge.

Van Vugt, H., Bailenson, J.N., Konijn, E., & Hoorn, J. (2010). Effects of facial similarity on user responses to embodied agents. ACM Transactions on Computer Human Interaction, 17 (2), 7:1-27.

Bailenson, J.N. & Segovia, K.Y. (2010). Virtual doppelgangers: Psychological effects of avatars who ignore their owners. In W. S. Bainbridge (Ed.), Online worlds: Convergence of the real and the virtual (175-186). Springer: New York.


Fox, J., Arena, D., & Bailenson, J.N. (2009). Virtual Reality: A survival guide for the social scientist. Journal of Media Psychology, 21 (3), 95-113.

McCall, C., Bailenson, J.N., Blascovich, J., & Beall, A. C. (2009). Leveraging collaborative virtual environment technology for inter-population research on persuasion in a classroom setting. PRESENCE: Teleoperators & Virtual Environments, 18 (5), 361-369.

Harris, H., Bailenson, J.N., Nielsen A. & Yee, N. (2009). The evolution of social behavior over time in Second Life. PRESENCE: Teleoperators & Virtual Environments, 18 (6), 294-303.

Segovia, K.Y. & Bailenson, J.N. (2009). Virtually true: Children's acquisition of false memories in virtual reality. Media Psychology, 12, 371-393.

Fox, J., Bailenson, J.N., & Binney, J. (2009). Virtual experiences, physical behaviors: The effect of presence on imitation of an eating avatar. PRESENCE: Teleoperators & Virtual Environments, 18(4), 294-303.

Fox, J., & Bailenson, J.N. (2009). Virtual self-modeling: The effects of vicarious reinforcement and identification on exercise behaviors. Media Psychology, 12, 1-25.

Yee, N. & Bailenson, J.N. (2009). The difference between being and seeing: The relative contribution of self perception and priming to behavioral changes via digital self-representation. Media Psychology, 12(2), 195-209.

Yee, N., Bailenson, J.N., & Ducheneaut, N. (2009). The Proteus Effect: Implications of transformed digital self-representation on online and offline behavior. Communication Research, 36 (2), 285-312.

Segovia, K.Y., Bailenson, J.N., Monin, B. (2009). Morality in tele-immersive environments. Proceedings of the International Conference on Immersive Telecommunications (IMMERSCOM), May 27 - 29, Berkeley, CA, USA.

Fox, J., & Bailenson, J.N. (2009). Virtual virgins and vamps: The effects of exposure to female characters' sexualized appearance and gaze in an immersive virtual environment. Sex Roles, 61 (3-4), 147-157.

Groom, V., Bailenson, J.N., & Nass, C. (2009). The influence of racial embodiment on racial bias in immersive virtual environments. Social Influence, 4(1), 1-18.


Bailenson, J.N., Iyengar, S., Yee, N., & Collins, N. (2008). Facial similarity between voters and candidates causes influence. Public Opinion Quarterly, 72 (5), 935-961.

Bailenson, J.N., Yee, N., Blascovich, J., Beall, A.C., Lundblad, N., & Jin, M. (2008). The use of immersive virtual reality in the learning sciences: Digital transformations of teachers, students, and social context. The Journal of the Learning Sciences, 17, 102-141.

Bailenson, J.N., Yee, N., Blascovich, J., & Guadagno, R.E. (2008). Transformed social interaction in mediated interpersonal communication. In Konijn, E., Tanis, M., Utz, S. & Linden, A. (Eds.), Mediated Interpersonal Communication (pp. 77-99). Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Ersner-Hershfield, H., Bailenson, J., & Carstensen, L.L. (2008). Feeling more connected to your future self: Using immersive virtual reality to increase retirement saving. Poster presented at the Association for Psychological Science Annual Convention, Chicago, IL.

Yee, N., Bailenson, J.N. (2008). A method for longitudinal behavioral data collection in Second Life, PRESENCE: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments. 17(6), 594-596.

Bailenson, J.N., Patel, K., Nielsen, A., Bajcsy, R., Jung, S., & Kurillo, G. (2008). The Effect of interactivity on learning physical actions in virtual reality. Media Psychology, 11, 354–376.

Loomis, J.M., Kelly, J.W., Pusch, M., Bailenson, J.N., & Beall, A.C. (2008). Psychophysics of perceiving eye and head direction with peripheral vision: Implications for the dynamics of eye gaze behavior. Perception, 37, 1443-1457.

Ahn, S.J., Jabon, M.E., & Bailenson, J.N. (2008). Facial expressions as predictors of online buying intention. Proceedings of the 58th Annual International Communication Association Conference. May 22-26, Montreal, Canada.

Bailenson, J.N., Pontikakis, E.D., Mauss, I.B., Gross, J.J., Jabon, M.E., Hutcherson, C.A., Nass, C., & John, O. (2008). Real-time classification of evoked emotions using facial feature tracking and physiological responses. International Journal of Human Machine Studies, 66, 303-317.

Bailenson, J.N., Blascovich, J., & Guadagno, R.E. (2008). Self representations in immersive virtual environments. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 38, 11, pp. 2673-2690.

Bailenson, J.N., Davies, A., Beall. A.C., Blascovich, J., Guadagno, R.E., & McCall, C. (2008). The effects of witness viewpoint distance, angle, and choice on eyewitness accuracy in police lineups conducted in immersive virtual environments. PRESENCE: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 17(3), 242-255.


Bailenson, J.N., & Yee, N. (2007). Virtual interpersonal touch and digital chameleons. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior, 31, 225-242.

Bailenson, J.N., Yee, N., Patel, K., & Beall, A.C. (2007). Detecting digital chameleons. Computers in Human Behavior, 24, 66-87.

Yee, N. & Bailenson, J.N. (2007). The Proteus Effect: Self transformations in virtual reality. Human Communication Research, 33, 271-290.

Bailenson, J.N. & Yee, N. (2007). Virtual interpersonal touch: Haptic interaction and copresence in collaborative virtual environments. International Journal of Multimedia Tools and Applications, 37(1), 5-14.

Okita, S.Y., Bailenson, J., Schwartz, D. L. (2007). The mere belief of social interaction improves learning, In Proceedings of the Twenty-ninth Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society. August, Nashville, USA.

Bailenson, J.N., Yee, N., Kim, A., & Tecarro, J (2007). Sciencepunk: The influence of informed science fiction on virtual reality research. In, Margret Grebowicz, ed. The Joy of SF: Essays in Science and Technology Studies (pp. 147-164). Open Court Publishing.

Bailenson, J.N., Yee, N., Brave, S., Merget, D., & Koslow, D. (2007). Virtual interpersonal touch: Expressing and recognizing emotions through haptic devices. Human-Computer Interaction, 22, 325-353.

Yee, N., Bailenson, J.N., Rickertsen, K. (2007). A meta-analysis of the impact of the inclusion and realism of human-like faces on user experiences in interfaces. Nominated for Best Paper Award in Proceedings of the Conference on Computer-Human Interaction (CHI). April 28 - May 3, California, USA.

Guadagno, R.E., Blascovich, J., Bailenson, J.N., McCall, C. (2007). Virtual humans and persuasion: The effects of agency and behavioral realism. Media Psychology, 10, 1-22.

Yee, N., Bailenson, J.N., Urbanek, M., Chang, F., & Merget, D. (2007). The unbearable likeness of being digital; The persistence of nonverbal social norms in online virtual environments. Cyberpsychology and Behavior, 10, 115-121.


Bailenson, J.N. (2006). Transformed social interaction in collaborative virtual environments. In Messaris, P. and Humphreys, L. (Ed.) Digital Media: Transformations in Human Communication. 255-264. New York: Peter Lang.

Yee, N., & Bailenson, J.N. (2006). Walk a mile in digital shoes: The impact of embodied perspective-taking on the reduction of negative stereotyping in immersive virtual environments. Proceedings of PRESENCE 2006: The 9th Annual International Workshop on Presence. August 24 &ndash 26, Cleveland, Ohio, USA.

Bailenson, J.N., Garland , P., Iyengar, S., & Yee, N. (2006). Transformed facial similarity as a political cue: A preliminary investigation. Political Psychology, 27, 373-386.

Bailenson, J.N. & Beall, A.C. (2006). Transformed social interaction: Exploring the digital plasticity of avatars. In Schroeder, R. & Axelsson, A.'s (Eds.), Avatars at Work and Play: Collaboration and Interaction in Shared Virtual Environments, Springer-Verlag, 1-16.

Bailenson, J.N., Yee, N., Merget, D., & Schroeder, R. (2006). The effect of behavioral realism and form realism of real-time avatar faces on verbal disclosure, nonverbal disclosure, emotion recognition, and copresence in dyadic interaction. PRESENCE: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 15, 359-372.

Bailenson, J.N., & Yee, N. (2006). A longitudinal study of task performance, head movements, subjective report, simulator sickness, and transformed social interaction in collaborative virtual environments. PRESENCE: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 15(6).

Patel, K., Bailenson, J.N., Hack-Jung, S., Diankov , R., & Bajcsy , R. (2006). The effects of fully immersive virtual reality on the learning of physical tasks. Proceedings of PRESENCE 2006: The 9th Annual International Workshop on Presence. August 24 – 26, Cleveland, Ohio, USA.

Deng, Z., Bailenson, J.N., Lewis J.P., & Neumann, U. (2006). Perceiving visual emotions with speech. Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Intelligent Virtual Agents. California , USA . 21-23 August.

Bailenson, J.N., Blascovich, J., Beall, A.C., & Noveck, B. (2006). Courtroom applications of virtual environments, immersive virtual environments, and collaborative virtual environments. Law and Policy, 28(2), 249-270.

Blascovich, J., & Bailenson, J. (2006). Immersive Virtual Environments and Education Simulations. In Cohen, Portney, Rehberger, Thorsen (Eds.) Virtual Decisions: Digital Simulations for Teaching Reasoning in the Social Sciences and Humanities. Mahwah , New Jersey: Lawrence Earlbaum Associates, Inc.


Bailenson, J.N., Beall., A.C., Blascovich, J., Loomis, J., & Turk, M. (2005). Transformed social interaction, augmented gaze, and social influence in immersive virtual environments. Human Communication Research, 31, 511-537.

Bailenson, J.N. & Yee, N. (2005). Digital Chameleons: Automatic assimilation of nonverbal gestures in immersive virtual environments. Psychological Science, 16, 814-819.

Bailenson, J.N., Swinth, K. R., Hoyt, C. L., Persky, S., Dimov, A., and Blascovich, J. (2005). The independent and interactive effects of embodied agent appearance and behavior on self-report, cognitive, and behavioral markers of copresence in immersive virtual environments. PRESENCE: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 14, 379-393.

Turk, M., Bailenson, J.N., Beall, A.C., Blascovich, J., Guadagno, R. (2004). Multimodal transformed social interaction. Proceedings of the ACM Sixth International Conference on Multimodal Interfaces (ICMI), October 14 - 15, State College, PA, USA.

Bailenson, J.N., Beall, A.C., Loomis, J., Blascovich, J., & Turk, M. (2004). Transformed social interaction: Decoupling representation from behavior and form in collaborative virtual environments. PRESENCE: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 13(4), 428-441.

Bailenson, J.N., Aharoni, E. Beall, A.C., Guadagno, R.E., Dimov, A., & Blascovich, J. (2004). Comparing behavioral and self-report measures of embodied agents' social presence in immersive virtual environments. Proceedings of the 7th Annual International Workshop on PRESENCE ( Valencia , Spain ).

Bailenson, J.N., & Blascovich, J. (2004) Avatars. Encyclopedia of Human-Computer Interaction, Berkshire Publishing Group, 64-68.

Bailenson, J.N., Beall, A.C., Blascovich, J., & Rex, C. (2004). Examining virtual busts: Are photogrammetrically-generated head models effective for person identification? PRESENCE: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 13(4), 416-427.

Beall, A.C., Bailenson, J.N., Loomis, J., Blascovich, J., & Rex, C. (2003). Non-zero-sum mutual gaze in collaborative virtual environments. Proceedings of HCI International, 2003, Crete.

Bailenson, J.N., Blascovich, J.,Beall, A.C., & Loomis, J.M., (2003). Interpersonal distance in immersive virtual environments. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 29. 1-15.

Bailenson, J.N., Beall, A.C., & Blascovich, J. (2003). Using virtual heads for person identification: An empirical study comparing photographs to photogrammetrically-generated models. Journal of Forensic Identification, 53 (6), 722-728.

Bailenson, J.N., Beall. A.C., & Blascovich, J. (2002). Mutual gaze and task performance in shared virtual environments. Journal of Visualization and Computer Animation, 13, 1-8.

Blascovich, J., Loomis, J., Beall, A., Swinth, K., Hoyt, C., & Bailenson, J.N. (2002). Immersive virtual environment technology as a methodological tool for social psychology. Psychological Inquiry, 13, 103-124.

Blascovich, J., Loomis, J., Beall, A., Swinth, K., Hoyt, C., & Bailenson, J. (2002). Immersive virtual environment technology: Not just another research tool for social psychology. Psychological Inquiry, 13, 146-149.

Bailenson, J.N., Beall, A.C., Blascovich, J., Weisbuch, M., & Raimmundo, R. (2001). Intelligent agents who wear your face: Users' reactions to the virtual self. Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence, 2190, 86-99.

Bailenson, J.N., Blascovich, J., Beall, A.C., & Loomis, J.M. (2001). Equilibrium revisited: Mutual gaze and personal space in virtual environments. PRESENCE: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 10. 583-598.