Turk, M., Bailenson, J.N., Beall, A.C., Blascovich, J., Guadagno, R. (2004). Multimodal transformed social interaction. Proceedings of the ACM Sixth International Conference on Multimodal Interfaces (ICMI), October 14 - 15, State College, PA, USA.
Understanding human-human interaction is fundamental to the long-term pursuit of powerful and natural multimodal interfaces. Nonverbal communication, including body posture, gesture, facial expression, and eye gaze, is an important aspect of human-human interaction. We introduce a paradigm for studying multimodal and nonverbal communication in collaborative virtual environments (CVEs) called Transformed Social Interaction (TSI), in which a user's visual representation is rendered in a way that strategically filters selected communication behaviors in order to change the nature of a social interaction. To achieve this, TSI must employ technology to detect, recognize, and manipulate behaviors of interest, such as facial expressions, gestures, and eye gaze. In  we presented a TSI experiment called non-zero-sum gaze (NZSG) to determine the effect of manipulated eye gaze on persuasion in a small group setting. Eye gaze was manipulated so that each participant in a three-person CVE received eye gaze from a presenter that was normal, less than normal, or greater than normal. We review this experiment and discuss the implications of TSI for multimodal interfaces.