Stanford University

How immersive is enough? A foundation for a meta-analysis of the effect of immersive technology on measured presence.

Cummings, J.J., Bailenson, J.N., & Fidler, M.J. (2012). How immersive is enough? A foundation for a meta-analysis of the effect of immersive technology on measured presence. Proceedings of the International Society for Presence Research Annual Conference. October 24-26, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.

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Abstract

A common assumption guiding research in virtual environments is that increased immersion (i.e., technological affordances) permits improvements in performance or engagement, with this effect mediated through user experience of “presence”. However, the literature on the relationships between immersion and user presence is complex, with empirical studies focusing on different immersive system features, employing various designs, and yielding mixed results.In this paper we present the initial qualitative work required for conducting a subsequent quantitative meta-analysis investigating the relationship between immersion, presence, and performance. We first review the theoretical relationship, then present the rationale for such a meta-analysis.In the latter portion of the paper we offer a foundation on which this analysis can begin, initially focusing on the effects of various immersion components on self-reported levels of presence.We also provide a collection of previous studies that empirically examine the influence of various immersive system components on self-reported presence. Our future work will employ this list to conduct the quantitative phase of the meta-analysis.

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