Virtual Human Interaction Lab – Stanford University

{ Publications: Agents & avatars}

Topic: Agents & avatars

Digital representations that may take human or other forms. Agents are controlled by computer algorithms; avatars are controlled by humans.

Won, A.S., Bailenson, J.N., Lee, J.D., Lanier, J. (in press). Homuncular Flexibility in Virtual Reality. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication.

Aymerich-Franch, L., Kizilcec, R.F., & Bailenson, J.N. (2014). The Relationship between Virtual Self Similarity and Social Anxiety. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 8(944).

Fox, J., Ahn, S.J., Janssen, J., Yeykelis, L., Segovia, K., & Bailenson, J. N. (in press). Avatars versus agents: A meta-analysis quantifying the effect of agency. Human-Computer Interaction.

Aymerich-Franch, L. & Bailenson, J.N. (2014). The use of doppelgangers in virtual reality to treat public speaking anxiety: a gender comparison. Proceedings of the International Society for Presence Research Annual Conference. March, 17-19, Vienna, Austria.

Lee, J.-E.R, Nass, C.I., & Bailenson, J.N. (2014). Does the mask govern the mind? : Effects of arbitrary gender representation on quantitative task performance in avatar-represented virtual groups. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, & Social Networking, 17(4), 248-254.

Rosenberg, R.S., Baughman, S.L., Bailenson, J.N. (2013). Virtual Superheroes: Using Superpowers in Virtual Reality to Encourage Prosocial Behavior. PLOS One., 8 (1), 1-9.

Segovia, K.Y. & Bailenson, J.N. (2013). Identity Manipulation—What Happens When Identity Presentation is Not Truthful. In Amichai-Hamburger Y. (Ed.), The Social Net: Understanding Our Online Behavior, Oxford University Press, 45-61.

Fox, J., Bailenson, J.N., & Tricase, L. (2013). The embodiment of sexualized virtual selves: The Proteus effect and experiences of self-objectification via avatars. Computers in Human Behavior., 29, 930-938.

Aymerich-Franch, L., Karutz, C., & Bailenson, J.N. (2012). Effects of Facial and Voice Similarity on Presence in a Public Speaking Virtual Environment. Proceedings of the International Society for Presence Research Annual Conference. October 24–26, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.

Segovia, K. Y., & Bailenson, J.N. (2012). Virtual imposters: Responses to avatars that do not look like their controllers. Social Influence.

Ahn, S.J., Fox, J., & Bailenson, J.N. (2012). Avatars. In Bainbridge, W. S. (Ed.), Leadership in Science and Technology: A Reference Handbook. SAGE Publications.

Blascovich, J., & Bailenson, J.N. (2011). Infinite Reality - Avatars, Eternal Life, New Worlds, and the Dawn of the Virtual Revolution. New York: William Morrow.

Bailenson, J.N., & Blascovich, J. (2011). Virtual Reality and Social Networks Will Be a Powerful Combination: Avatars will make social networks seductive. IEEE Spectrum. PDF

Ahn, S.J., & Bailenson, J.N. (2011). Self-endorsing versus other-endorsing in virtual environments: The effect on brand attitude and purchase intention. Journal of Advertising, 40 (2), 93-106.

Fox, J., & Bailenson, J.N. (2009). Virtual virgins and vamps: The effects of exposure to female characters' sexualized appearance and gaze in an immersive virtual environment. Sex Roles, 61 (3-4), 147-157.

Bailenson, J.N., Yee, N., Blascovich, J., & Guadagno, R.E. (2008). Transformed social interaction in mediated interpersonal communication. In Konijn, E., Tanis, M., Utz, S. & Linden, A. (Eds.), Mediated Interpersonal Communication (pp. 77-99). Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Bailenson, J.N., Blascovich, J., & Guadagno, R.E. (2008). Self representations in immersive virtual environments. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 38, 11, pp. 2673-2690.

Okita, S.Y., Bailenson, J., Schwartz, D. L. (2007). The mere belief of social interaction improves learning, In Proceedings of the Twenty-ninth Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society. August, Nashville, USA.

Yee, N., Bailenson, J.N., Rickertsen, K. (2007). A meta-analysis of the impact of the inclusion and realism of human-like faces on user experiences in interfaces. Nominated for Best Paper Award in Proceedings of the Conference on Computer-Human Interaction (CHI). April 28 - May 3, California, USA.

Guadagno, R.E., Blascovich, J., Bailenson, J.N., McCall, C. (2007). Virtual humans and persuasion: The effects of agency and behavioral realism. Media Psychology, 10, 1-22.

Bailenson, J.N. & Beall, A.C. (2006). Transformed social interaction: Exploring the digital plasticity of avatars. In Schroeder, R. & Axelsson, A.'s (Eds.), Avatars at Work and Play: Collaboration and Interaction in Shared Virtual Environments, Springer-Verlag, 1-16.

Bailenson, J.N., Yee, N., Merget, D., & Schroeder, R. (2006). The effect of behavioral realism and form realism of real-time avatar faces on verbal disclosure, nonverbal disclosure, emotion recognition, and copresence in dyadic interaction. PRESENCE: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 15, 359-372.

Deng, Z., Bailenson, J.N., Lewis J.P., & Neumann, U. (2006). Perceiving visual emotions with speech. Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Intelligent Virtual Agents. California , USA . 21-23 August.

Bailenson, J.N., Swinth, K. R., Hoyt, C. L., Persky, S., Dimov, A., and Blascovich, J. (2005). The independent and interactive effects of embodied agent appearance and behavior on self-report, cognitive, and behavioral markers of copresence in immersive virtual environments. PRESENCE: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 14, 379-393.

Bailenson, J.N., Aharoni, E. Beall, A.C., Guadagno, R.E., Dimov, A., & Blascovich, J. (2004). Comparing behavioral and self-report measures of embodied agents' social presence in immersive virtual environments. Proceedings of the 7th Annual International Workshop on PRESENCE ( Valencia , Spain ).

Bailenson, J.N., & Blascovich, J. (2004) Avatars. Encyclopedia of Human-Computer Interaction, Berkshire Publishing Group, 64-68.

Bailenson, J.N., Beall, A.C., Blascovich, J., & Rex, C. (2004). Examining virtual busts: Are photogrammetrically-generated head models effective for person identification? PRESENCE: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 13(4), 416-427.

Bailenson, J.N., Blascovich, J.,Beall, A.C., & Loomis, J.M., (2003). Interpersonal distance in immersive virtual environments. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 29. 1-15.

Bailenson, J.N., Beall, A.C., & Blascovich, J. (2003). Using virtual heads for person identification: An empirical study comparing photographs to photogrammetrically-generated models. Journal of Forensic Identification, 53 (6), 722-728.

Bailenson, J.N., Blascovich, J., Beall, A.C., & Loomis, J.M. (2001). Equilibrium revisited: Mutual gaze and personal space in virtual environments. PRESENCE: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 10. 583-598.