Stanford University

Stimulus Sampling with 360-Videos: Examining Head Movements, Arousal, Presence, Simulator Sickness, and Preference on a Large Sample of Participants and Videos

Jun, H., Miller M., Herrera, F., Reeves, B., & Bailenson, J. N. (2020). Stimulus Sampling with 360-Videos: Examining Head Movements, Arousal, Presence, Simulator Sickness, and Preference on a Large Sample of Participants and Videos. IEEE Transactions on Affective Computing, 5 (2), 112-125.

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Abstract

As the public use of virtual reality (VR) scales, understanding how users engage across various sources of VR content is critical. 360-video is popular due to its ease of both creation and access. There are, however, few studies of 360-videos, and they suffer from three limitations. First, most studies rely on small and homogeneous samples of participants. Second, they tend to examine only a single 360-video, or a handful of them in a few exceptional cases. Third, very few studies trace participants’ VR use over multiple experiences. The current study examined a large sample of participants (511) and a large set of 360-videos (80). Each participant experienced 5 of the videos, and we tracked head movement in addition to self-report data on presence, arousal, simulator sickness, and future use intention for each video. This design allowed us to answer novel questions relating to individual differences of participants and changes in experience over time, and in general to present results of VR use at a scale not seen before in the literature. Moreover, the results suggest that looking at patterns across stimuli provide unique insights which are missed when looking only within a single piece of content.

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